General Health

Well Women Health Package with Vitamins- Part 5

Vitamin D- Overview

Vitamins are chemicals that your body need for appropriate growth and development. Vitamin D aids calcium absorption in the body. One of the most important components of bone is calcium. Vitamin D deficiency can cause bone problems including osteoporosis and rickets. Vitamin D is important for your nervous, muscular, and immunological systems.

Vitamin D is obtained in three ways: via the skin, through the food, and through supplementation. After being exposed to sunshine, your body produces vitamin D on its own. Overexposure to the sun, on the other hand, can cause skin ageing and cancer. Many people try to supplement their vitamin D intake with other foods.

  • Egg yolks, saltwater seafood, and liver are all high in vitamin D. Vitamin D is commonly added to other meals, such as milk and cereal.
  • Vitamin D pills are also available. Consult your physician to determine how much you should take. People that may require more vitamin D include:
  • Adults in their latter years
  • Infants who have been breastfed
  • Dark-skinned people
  • People suffering from specific illnesses, such as liver disease, cystic fibrosis, and Crohn’s disease

Diagnosis

Vitamin D is an important component for strong bones and teeth. Vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 are the two types of vitamin D that are vital for nutrition. Fortified foods, such as morning cereals, milk, and other dairy products, are the major sources of vitamin D2. When you are exposed to sunshine, your body produces vitamin D3. Some foods, such as eggs and fatty fish like salmon, tuna, and mackerel, contain it.

Vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 are converted in your circulation to a form of vitamin D called 25 hydroxyvitamin D, or 25(OH)D. The level of 25(OH)D in your blood is measured by a vitamin D blood test. Vitamin D levels that are too high or too low might suggest bone abnormalities or nutritional issues.

These signs and symptoms include:

  • Softness of the bones
  • Malformation of the bones (in children) such as Genua vara, coxa vara, ulnar deviation
  • Fractures

If the individual is at a higher risk for vitamin D deficiency, Vitamin D levels can be evaluated. The following are some of the risk factors:

  • Osteoporosis or another type of bone disease
  • Gastric bypass surgery has been performed previously
  • Vitamin D insufficiency is more frequent among the elderly
  • Obesity
  • Lack of solar exposure
  • Having a darker skin tone
  • You’re having trouble absorbing fat in your diet
  • Bone deterioration

Vitamin B12- Overview

Vitamin B12 is an essential nutrient found in meat, fish, and dairy products. It can also be manufactured in a laboratory and is frequently combined with other B vitamins.

Many components of the body, including the brain, nerves, and blood cells, require vitamin B12 for proper function and development. The active form of vitamin B12 is methylcobalamin. The most frequent type used in supplements is cyanocobalamin, which must be converted by the body into the active form.

Vitamin B12 is widely used to treat vitamin B12 deficiency, cyanide poisoning, and excessive blood homocysteine levels. It’s also used to treat canker sores, cataracts, Alzheimer’s disease, osteoporosis, weariness, and a variety of other ailments, although most of these claims lack scientific backing.

Diagnosis

Vitamin B-12 levels, both high and low, can suggest an underlying disorder. Anemia, an intracellular parasite, and hyperthyroidism can all be caused by low B-12 levels. According to studies, high doses of B-12 may raise your risk of cancer.

  •     Vitamin B-12 deficiency can also be an indication of hepatic disorders
  •     various forms of leukaemia
  •     diabetes
  • renal disease

It’s also possible to have low or high vitamin B-12 levels without causing any other health problems. Other than inadequate vitamin B-12 levels, most health disorders include additional symptoms.

“At this time, no ‘gold standard’ test for the diagnosis of vitamin B12 insufficiency exists,” according to one review, “and as a result, the diagnosis involves consideration of both the clinical state of the patient and the results of investigations.”

When a normal complete blood count reveals anaemia with an elevated mean corpuscular volume, vitamin insufficiency is usually considered (MCV). Macrocytes and hypersegmented polymorphonuclear leukocytes can also be spotted on a peripheral blood smear. Vitamin B12 blood values below 120–180 pmol/L (170–250 pg/mL) in adults support the diagnosis. Serum levels, on the other hand, can be maintained when tissue B12 supplies diminish.

As a result, serum B12 levels above the inadequacy cut-off point do not always indicate adequate B12 status. As a result, rather than relying solely on the content of B12 in blood, high serum homocysteine over 15 micromol/L and methylmalonic acid (MMA) over 0.271 micromol/L are considered better indications of B12 deficiency.

Raised MMA, on the other hand, is not definitive because it is shown in patients with B12 deficiency as well as older people with renal insufficiency, and elevated homocysteine is not conclusive because it is also seen in people with folate shortage. A lumbar puncture may be used to evaluate B12 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid if nervous system impairment is present and blood tests are equivocal.

Author

Yash Batra

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