General Health

Well Women Health Package with Vitamins- Part 4

Overview 

This set of tests evaluates how much cholesterol and other lipids are present in your blood.

Lipids, or fats, include cholesterol and triglycerides. These fats are necessary for cell function, but when they accumulate in the blood, they can be hazardous. They can sometimes result in clogged, inflamed arteries, a condition known as atherosclerosis. If the arteries in your heart muscle are compromised, this may prevent your heart from performing normally.

This set of tests can help you figure out if you’re at risk of cardiovascular disease or stroke.

A lipid profile evaluates these parameters:

  • Cholesterol total
  • LDL cholesterol (sometimes known as “bad” cholesterol)
  • HDL cholesterol (sometimes known as “good” cholesterol)
  • Triglycerides

The following are some of the risk factors for cardiovascular disease:

  • A recent test resulted in a high cholesterol level.
  • Cigarettes are inhaled.
  • Development of obesity.
  • If there isn’t enough physical activity in your lifestyle.
  • Blood pressure that is too high (hypertension).
  • Diabetes or prediabetes is a condition in which a person has diabetes or is at risk of developing diabetes.

Normal values:-

For Cholesterol total 

  • Normal levels are fewer than 200 milligrammes per deciliter (mg/dL).
  • The range of 201 to 240 mg/dL is considered borderline.
  • A concentration of more than 240 mg/dL is considered high.

For HDL

  • It is preferable to have a cholesterol level of 60 mg/dL or higher since it protects against cardiovascular disease.
  • It’s safe if HDL levels are between 40 and 59 mg/dL.
  • Low levels of cholesterol (less than 40 mg/dL) increase the risk of cardiovascular disease

For LDL

  • A concentration of less than 100 mg/dL is optimal.
  • The range of 130 to 159 mg/dL is considered borderline high.
  • The range of 160 to 189 mg/dL is considered high.
  • An LDL level of 190 mg/dL or higher is considered extremely high.

For Triglycerides

  • Although the American Heart Association says that a lower level is optimal for health, 150 mg/dL or less.
  • An increased risk of heart disease if your cholesterol level is between 151 and 200 mg/dL.
  • An increased risk of heart disease if your cholesterol level is more than 200 mg/dL.

Liver function tests are blood tests that assess the liver’s ability to produce several enzymes, proteins, and other compounds. These findings are evidence of your liver’s overall health. Different compounds are frequently evaluated at the same time on a single blood sample, and these compounds may include:

  • The total protein is made up of albumin, a protein generated in the liver. The total amount of protein in the blood is determined by this test.
  • ALP (alkaline phosphatase), ALT (alanine transaminase), AST (aspartate aminotransferase), and gamma-glutamyl transferase are all enzymes that help the body break down amino acids (GGT). The liver produces a variety of enzymes.
  • Bilirubin is a waste product that the liver produces.
  • Lactate dehydrogenase (LD) is an enzyme found in nearly every cell in the body. When cells are destroyed by disease or injury, LD is released into the bloodstream.
  • The protein prothrombin time (PT) is involved in blood coagulation.

If the levels of one or more of these compounds are abnormally high, it could indicate liver disease.

Can be employed for the following:

  • Assist in the diagnosis of liver illnesses such as hepatitis.
  • Helps in tracking liver disease treatment.
  • Examine the extent to which disease, such as cirrhosis, has damaged or scarred the liver.
  • Keep an eye on the adverse effects of some medications.

Renal function tests (RFT) are a collection of tests that can be used to assess kidney (renal) function. To determine the current health of the kidneys, the tests measure levels of various substances in the blood, including several minerals, electrolytes, proteins, and glucose (sugar).

If the kidneys are not functioning properly, waste products can accumulate in the blood and fluid levels can increase to dangerous volumes, causing damage to the body or a potentially life-threatening situation. Numerous conditions and diseases can result in damage to the kidneys. The most common causes of and main risk factors for kidney disease are diabetes and hypertension.

Assessment of Renal Function

A variety of clinical laboratory tests can be used to investigate and assess kidney function. Obtaining an estimate of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and checking for proteinuria are the most feasible techniques to assess renal function in the clinic (albuminuria).

Glomerular Filtration Rate

The glomerular filtration rate is the best overall indication of glomerular function (GFR). GFR is the rate at which compounds in plasma are filtered through the glomerulus in millilitres per minute; in other words, the clearance of material from the blood. A healthy adult male’s GFR is 90 to 120 mL per minute.

The following are the qualities of an optimal GFR marker:

  • It should occur endogenously and at a consistent rate in the plasma.
  • The glomerulus should be able to filter it freely.
  • The renal tubules are incapable of reabsorbing or secreting it.
  • It should not be eliminated by the kidneys.

Author

Yash Batra

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