This drug is prescribed to reduce moderate to severe pain, either acute or chronic.

IUPAC name: (4R,4aR,7S,7aR,12bS)-3-methyl-2,4,4a,7,7a,13-hexahydro-1H-4,12-methanobenzofuro[3,2-e]isoquinoline-7,9-diol

Drug class: Opiate analgesics (Natural opium alkaloid)

Route of administration: oral, intravenous, intramuscular, subcutaneous, epidural, intrathecal

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Is it a drug that needs a prescription? YES

Is it an OTC drug? NO

Mechanism of action

This medication lowers pain perception by attaching to opioid receptors in the central nervous system (CNS) and preventing neurons from transmitting pain signals from the body to the brain.

Side effects

It may cause nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, vomiting, headache, dry mouth, inability to urinate, sedation, constipation, excessive sweating, and mood changes.


If you take this medicine improperly and without a prescription, you face the risk of becoming addicted (habit-forming), overdosing, or even dying.

It is not advised to take morphine while pregnant since the baby might experience potentially fatal withdrawal symptoms.


Before using this medication, take the following precautions and notify your doctor:

  • If you are allergic to it or to other opioids (including codeine), or if you have other allergies,
  • If you are taking any other medication (prescribed, non-prescribed, or herbal products), especially pain reliever,
  • If you have a history of breathing or lung problems (including sleep apnea, severe asthma, COPD-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), brain problems (tumors, seizures), kidney issues, liver disease, gallbladder disease, depression, anxiety, intestinal blockage due to paralytic ileus, constipation, diarrhea, difficulty urinating, drug abuse,
  • If you have undergone any type of surgery,
  • If you take morphine with alcohol, it increases your chances of developing blurred vision, dizziness, drowsiness, or it can also slow your breathing. Fatal side effects can occur.
  • This drug’s adverse effects are more severe in older adults.
  • Use of this drug is not advised if you are breastfeeding.

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