Mental illness is treated and supported in psychiatric hospitals, clinics, and a variety of community mental health programmes. Services are becoming more recovery-oriented in several nations, with the goal of assisting people in achieving a certain kind of life they want.
There are many various treatment options, and which one is best depends on the illness and the patient. Numerous things have been discovered to be beneficial for at least some individuals, and any treatment or intervention may be affected by the placebo effect. Occasionally, people may be treated against their will, which, depending on how it is done and perceived, may lead to special challenges. Other than maybe reducing victimisation, mandatory treatment vs non-mandatory treatment does not seem to make much of a difference.
Changing the diet, getting more exercise, and giving up smoking are all lifestyle choices that may be advantageous.
There are also many different kinds of counsellors, public health specialists, and psychotherapists, including family therapists. There are also peer support positions where the primary source of knowledge comes from personal experience with comparable problems.
Psychotherapy is a key treatment option for many mental diseases. There are a number of primary types. The popular cognitive behavioural treatment (CBT) focuses on changing the thought and behaviour patterns linked to a specific illness. Interpersonal psychotherapy and dialectic behavioural therapy (DBT) are examples of alternative psychotherapies (IPT). Psychoanalysis has long been the dominant school of psychotherapy and is still practised today because it addresses fundamental psychic tensions and defences. When treating a network of important people in addition to an individual, systemic treatment or family therapy may be used.
Humanistic thinking is the foundation of some psychotherapies. There are numerous specialised treatments for various illnesses, some of which may be derived from or combined with the aforementioned kinds. Experts in mental health frequently use an eclectic or integrative strategy. The therapy connection may be very important, and issues with trust, confidentiality, and engagement may arise.
Psychiatric medication, of which there are several broad types, is a significant treatment option for many mental diseases. Antidepressants are frequently used to treat anxiety and a variety of other diseases in addition to clinical depression. Sedatives and other anxiolytic medications are used to treat anxiety disorders and related issues including sleeplessness. Most bipolar disorders are treated with mood stabilisers. Antipsychotics are being used for a variety of different diseases as well as psychotic disorders, particularly for positive symptoms in schizophrenia. Stimulants are frequently employed, particularly for ADHD.
The illnesses for which they are genuinely intended may overlap significantly despite the differing conventional labels given to the therapeutic groupings, and there may also be off-label usage of drugs. Adherence to prescribed medications and their side effects can be troublesome. Pharmaceutical marketing and ethical conflicts of interest have also come under scrutiny. However, it has been found that using these drugs in conjunction with non-pharmacological approaches, such cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), is the most efficient way to treat mental illnesses.
When previous treatments for severe, untreatable depression have failed, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) may be performed. ECT is typically prescribed for severe vegetative symptoms, psychotic depression, depression during pregnancy, treatment-resistant depression, acute suicidal ideation, and catatonia. Though deemed experimental, some neurologists support psychosurgery in a few uncommon circumstances.
Both professional counselling and peer-to-peer co-counselling are options. Programs for psychoeducation may provide participants the knowledge they need to comprehend and handle their issues. Sometimes, creative therapies like theatre therapy, music therapy, or art therapy are used. Peer support, self-help groups for mental health, supported housing, and supported employment are just a few examples of the supporting measures and lifestyle changes that are frequently implemented (including social firms). Some people favour nutritional supplements.
In spite of any potential disability brought on by mental health issues, reasonable accommodations (adjustments and supports) could be put in place to help a person cope and achieve in surroundings. A trained mental service dog or an emotional support animal may fall under this category. Cannabis is specifically not advised as a treatment as of 2019.