Hydrochlorothiazide Drug for Hypertension


The drug is prescribed to treat hypertension (high blood pressure).

 In addition, it helps to prevent oedema (extra fluid retention in the body) linked to cardiac, hepatic or renal issues as well as to treat oedema induced by specific medications including estrogens and steroids.

IUPAC Name: 6-chloro-1,1-dioxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-1λ 6,2,4-benzothiadiazine-7-sulfonamide

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Drug Class: Thiazide; Diuretic (water pill)

Route of administration: Oral 

This is a prescribed drug and not an OTC drug 

Drug Action Mechanism 

This medication works by lowering blood pressure, decreasing the reabsorption of excess salt and water and therefore increasing urine output. Thus, it helps to prevent fluid retention.

Side effects

The side effects of hydrochlorothiazide include dizziness, loss of appetite, headache, postural hypotension, stomach pain, weakness, abnormal heart rate, muscle cramps, and electrolyte imbalance.


It is advisable to take this medication and follow the precautions and notify the doctor 

  • If the person is allergic to the drug, or other sulfa drugs or if the person is suffering from any other allergies.
  • If the person is on any prescribed, non-prescribed or herbal medication. 
  • If the person finds it difficult to urinate avoid taking this medication.
  •  If the person is suffering from any hepatic disease, kidney issues, diabetes, glaucoma, lupus, gout, asthma, low level of sodium or potassium, high level of calcium, or parathyroid gland disorder.
  • If the person has to undergo any type of eye or dental surgery.
  • While taking this medication, avoid alcohol consumption to the max as it increases the chances of developing blurred vision, dizziness, or drowsiness. It may also cause a loss of alertness.
  • Blood sugar levels may be affected by hydrochlorothiazide if the person is diabetic.
  • Limit sun exposure as this medication may increase the sensitivity to the sun. There is a risk of skin cancer.
  • Avoid overheating or dehydration during exercise or when the weather is hot.
  • The adverse effects of this medication might affect the older generation.
  • Consult a doctor if the person is pregnant or breastfeeding.

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