The results of the Genome Sequencing research paper verified the reinfection of SARS CoV-2 among Indian healthcare workers with increased severity in the second episode is what we are going to analyse for the purpose.
Four health care workers (HCWs) who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in May or June for the first time were reported for the study. During the first episode, two were very slightly symptomatic and two were asymptomatic. Afterward, before returning to Covid-19 duties, they recovered and/or tested negative. All four developed Covid-19 symptoms in July and they were confirmed to have Covid-19 again upon examination. For all four of the HCWs, we stored samples from the first episode and performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) on the paired samples. WGS revealed different mutations from the two different episodes in the samples, which strongly supports the argument of reinfection in conjunction with the clinical presentation.
In the report, in the second episode, all four HCWs showed more symptoms and a longer disease path, but although the second episode was more extreme for all four, it would still be graded as a mild disease. All of them were young, and older HCWs might be more likely to develop serious diseases. It is necessary to clarify that it is assumed that widespread reinfections are impossible. There is no reason for panic, but research into SARS-CoV-2 reinfections needs to be supported so that we can understand who is at risk and what serious factors are involved. Such events need to be observed since even unusual and uncommon events can give us critical insights into a new virus.
Whole-genome sequencing helps us to research the virus’s genetic code. There is a risk of mutations or mutations in the genetic code any time a virus replicates. Over time, certain mistakes or variations in the genetic code may be detected by whole-genome sequencing as the virus moves from one host to the next. While the virus is in the same patient, a few errors may occur, but if these errors are multiple, it indicates that the person has been reinfected from a different source by a slightly different virus.
The scale is the single most critical obstacle. We need several million more tests a day. The response time is another challenge; if a positive individual can be detected rapidly, they can be separated quicker. The third problem is the research pace. Covid-19 testing is not a one-time affair, as the risk of exposure and contamination is ongoing, testing needs to be replicated periodically. In breaking the chains of transmissions and stopping the Covid-19 pandemic, size, turnaround time and frequency of testing are as critical as test sensitivity.