General Health

Components of Sex Hormone Profile Test- Part 1

Overview

In males, testosterone is the primary sex hormone. During puberty, testosterone causes a boy’s body hair to grow, muscles to expand, and voice to deepen. It regulates sex drive, preserves muscular mass, and aids sperm production in adult males. Women’s bodies contain testosterone as well, although in much smaller amounts.

This test determines how much testosterone is present in your blood. The majority of testosterone in the blood is bound to proteins. Free testosterone also known as bioavailable testosterone has not been linked to a protein. Tests for testosterone are divided into two categories:

Both attached and free testosterone are measured in total testosterone.

  • Free testosterone is a test that only measures free testosterone. Free testosterone can provide important insights into some medical conditions.
  • In both men and women, testosterone levels that are too low testosterone or too high testosterone can create health concerns.

Free testosterone

Steroid hormones, including testosterone, are lipophilic hormones (soluble in lipids but not in water) that are carried in water-based blood plasma by specific and non-specific proteins. SHBG (sex hormone-binding globulin) binds testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estradiol, and other sex steroids, among other proteins. Albumin and lipoprotein are examples of non-specific binding proteins. The free part of the total hormone concentration is the portion that is not bound to its specific carrier protein. As a result, free testosterone refers to testosterone that is not bound to SHBG. Only the free form of testosterone appears to bind to an androgenic receptor, indicating that they have a biological function.

Low and high testosterone levels can cause a variety of Symptoms

Low T levels in men can cause the following symptoms:

  • Low sexual drive
  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Breast tissue development
  • Fertility issues
  • Alopecia, Hair loss is a common problem.
  • Osteoporosis causes bones to become weak and brittle
  • Muscle atrophy, loss of muscle tissue

High T levels in women can cause the following symptoms:

  • Hair growth on the body and the face that is excessive in amount
  • Voice reverberation
  • Inconsistent menstruation
  • Acne, hair follicles become clogged with oil and dead skin cells, resulting in a skin condition
  • Gain of weight

A testosterone level test may also be required for boys. Early puberty in boys can be an indication of High Testosterone, whereas delayed puberty in boys might be a symptom of low Testosterone.

Biological effects

Androgens like testosterone, in general, increase protein synthesis and, as a result, the development of tissues containing androgen receptors. Testosterone is known for its virilizing and anabolic properties

  • Muscle mass and strength gain, enhanced bone density and strength, and acceleration of linear growth and bone maturation are all anabolic benefits.
  • Androgenic effects include the maturation of the sex organs in the foetus, particularly the penis and the formation of the scrotum, as well as a deepening of the voice, growth of facial hair (such as the beard), and axillary (underarm) hair after birth (typically at puberty). Many of these are classified as secondary sex traits in men.

The age at which testosterone effects are most common can also be categorised. The quantities and duration of circulating free testosterone have a major impact on postnatal consequences in both males and females.

Normal Values

In males aged 19 to 39 years, total testosterone levels in the body ranged from 264 to 916 ng/dL (nanograms per deciliter), whereas adult men’s testosterone levels were 630 ng/dL. Despite its widespread usage as a reference range, many health care professionals have pointed out its accuracy in determining hypogonadism. Several professional medical organisations have suggested that 350 ng/dl be deemed the minimal normal level, which is in line with prior findings. Men’s testosterone levels decrease as they get older. Total testosterone levels in women were found to be 32.6 ng/dL on average. Total testosterone levels in women with hyperandrogenism have been reported to be 62.1 ng/dL on average.

Free Testosterone Normal values by age

  • 20 to 25 years: 5.25-20.7 ng/dL
  • 25 to 30 years: 5.05-19.8 ng/dL
  • 30 to 35 years: 4.85-19.0 ng/dL
  • 4.65-18.1 ng/dL in people 35 to 40 years old
  • 4.46-17.1 ng/dL in people aged 40-45 years
  • 4.26-16.4 ng/dL in people 45 to 50 years old
  • 4.06-15.6 ng/dL in people aged 50-55 yearss
  • 3.87-14.7 ng/dL in people aged 55 to 60.
  • 3.67-13.9 ng/dL in people aged 60-65 years.
  • 3.47-13.0 ng/dL in people aged 65 to 70.
  • 3.28-12.2 ng/dL in people aged 70-75 years.
  • 3.08-11.3 ng/dL in people aged 75-80 years.
  • 2.88-10.5 ng/dL in people aged 80-85 years.
  • 2.69-9.61 ng/dL in those aged 85-90.
  • 2.49-8.76 ng/dL in people aged 90-95 years.
  • 2.29-7.91 ng/dL in people aged 95 to 100.

Author

Yash Batra

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