General Health

Components of Amenorrhoea Profile Test- Part 4

Overview

Oestrogen levels in the blood or urine are measured with an oestrogen test. A rapid test kit can also be used to assess oestrogen in saliva. Estrogens are a class of hormones that play a key role in the development of female physical characteristics and reproductive activities, such as breast and uterine growth and menstrual cycle regulation. Men produce oestrogen as well, although in much smaller quantities. Estrogen regulates numerous reproductive system activities in men, including sperm maturation, and may be vital for healthy arousal.

One of the three forms of oestrogen is estrone. It’s a female sex hormone that aids in the development of the reproductive system and sexual development. Estrone is present in those who are born male but in smaller concentrations than in those who are born female. After menopause, estradiol levels are usually greater. Estrone is a lesser form of oestrogen that can be converted to estradiol when the body requires it. Estrone levels that are too low or too high might cause unpleasant symptoms such as irregular bleeding, tiredness, mood swings, and problems sleeping.

Although there are many different forms of estrogens, only three are typically tested:

  • Estrone, often known as E1, is the primary female hormone produced after menopause. Menopause is a stage in a woman’s life when her monthly periods stop and she is no longer able to conceive. It usually begins when a woman reaches the age of 50.
  • The main female hormone produced by non-pregnant women is estradiol, often known as E2.
  • Estriol, commonly known as E3, is a hormone that is produced in large amounts during pregnancy.

Measuring oestrogen levels can reveal vital details about your fertility (ability to become pregnant), pregnancy health, menstrual cycle, and other health issues.

Estrogen levels test are employed in following

Estradiol tests, often known as estrone tests, are used to:

  • Menopause hormone therapy can be recorded.
  • To have a better approach to early puberty ” versus “ delayed puberty
  • Menstrual issues should be diagnosed such as painful or irregular periods
  • Sterility or infertility (Sterility refers to the inability to conceive, whereas infertility refers to the inability to carry a pregnancy to term and give birth to a healthy child.).
  • Regular monitoring of infertility treatments
  • Estrogen-producing cancers like Granulosa cell tumours and thecoma are well-known estrogen-producing tumours.

A hormone test for estriol is used to:

  • Assist in the diagnosis of some birth defects during pregnancy.
  • Pay close attention to high-risk pregnancies.

Significance

It’s possible that levels of estradiol or estrone are higher than normal as a result of:

  • Tumours of the ovaries, adrenal glands, or testicles
  • Cirrhosis is a liver ailment characterised by cell degeneration, inflammation, and fibrous tissue thickening.
  • Females reach puberty earlier than males.

Estradiol or estrone levels may be lower than usual as a result of:

  • Primary ovarian insufficiency is also known as premature ovarian failure is a condition in which a woman’s ovaries stop working before she becomes 40, symptoms include irregular periods, hot flushes, irritability and infertility.
  • Menopause is marked by the end of a woman’s menstrual cycle.
  • Turner syndrome is a condition in which a woman’s sexual characteristics do not develop properly because of a missing or incomplete sex chromosome.
  • Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder in which individuals obsess about their weight and what they consume.
  • PCOS (polycystic ovarian syndrome) is a common hormone disorder that affects women causing enlarged ovaries with small cysts on the outer edges. It is one of the most common causes of female infertility.

When the estriol concentrations are lower than normal in pregnancy, it could mean that the pregnancy is failing or are usually associated with fetal growth restriction, fetal demise or loss, and large neural tube defects, such as anencephaly (It is a serious birth condition in which a newborn is born without brain and skull parts) and several congenital malformations. If the test reveals a possible birth defect, additional testing will be necessary before a diagnosis may be made.

Estriol levels that are higher than normal may signal that the female is ready to give birth. Estriol levels typically increase four weeks before the delivery of the baby.

Normal values

Estrone:

For adult men, normal values are between 10 and 60 Picograms per millilitre. For adult women, levels depend on menopause. Premenopausal levels are between 17 and 200 Picograms per millilitre while postmenopausal levels are between 7 and 40 Picograms per millilitre.

Estradiol:

Male: 37-184 Nanomoles per litre

Female: Early follicular phase:    73-550 Picomoles per litre

               Late follicular phase:    147-1285 Picomoles per litre

               Mid-cycle:                       550-2753 Picomoles per litre

               Luteal phase:                  110-1652 Picomoles per litre

               Postmenopausal:         <74 Picomoles per litre

Estriol:

Adult Male: ≤0.18 Nanograms per millilitre

Adult Female (Non-pregnant): ≤0.21 Nanograms per millilitre

Pregnancy

First trimester:     <2.50 Nanograms per millilitre

Second trimester: <9.60 Nanograms per millilitre

Third trimester:    <14.60 Nanograms per millilitre

 

Author

Yash Batra

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